E and died at the age of eighty or eighty-one at B. These dates, however, are not entirely certain, for according to Diogenes Laertius D.
Pythagoreanism Although Socrates influenced Plato directly as related in the dialogues, the influence of Pythagoras upon Plato also appears to have significant discussion in the philosophical literature. Pythagoras, or in a broader sense, the Pythagoreans, allegedly exercised an important influence on the work of Plato.
Harethis influence consists of three points: It is probable that both were influenced by Orphism.
The physical world of becoming is an imitation of the mathematical world of being. These ideas were very influential on HeraclitusParmenides and Plato. Metaphysics These two philosophers, following the way initiated by pre-Socratic Greek philosophers like Pythagoras, depart from mythology and begin the metaphysical tradition that strongly influenced Plato and continues today.
His image of the river, with ever-changing waters, is well known. According to this theory, there is a world of perfect, eternal, and changeless forms, the realm of Being, and an imperfect sensible world of becoming that partakes of the qualities of the forms, and is its instantiation in the sensible world.
The precise relationship between Plato and Socrates remains an area of contention among scholars. Plato makes it clear in his Apology of Socrates that he was a devoted young follower of Socrates. In that dialogue, Socrates is presented as mentioning Plato by name as one of those youths close enough to him to have been corrupted, if he were in fact guilty of corrupting the youth, and questioning why their fathers and brothers did not step forward to testify against him if he was indeed guilty of such a crime 33d—34a.
Phaedo 59b Plato never speaks in his own voice in his dialogues. In any case, Xenophon and Aristophanes seem to present a somewhat different portrait of Socrates from the one Plato paints. In the times of Homer and Hesiod 8th century BC they were quite synonyms, and contained the meaning of tale or history.
Later came historians like Herodotus and Thucydides, as well as philosophers as Parmenides and other Presocratics that introduced a distinction between both terms, and mythos became more a nonverifiable account, and logos a rational account.
Instead he made an abundant use of it. This fact has produced analytical and interpretative work, in order to clarify the reasons and purposes for that use. Plato, in general, distinguished between three types of myth.
Then came the myths based on true reasoning, and therefore also true. Finally there were those non verifiable because beyond of human reason, but containing some truth in them.
He considered that only a few people were capable or interested in following a reasoned philosophical discourse, but men in general are attracted by stories and tales. Consequently, then, he used the myth to convey the conclusions of the philosophical reasoning.
Aristotle gestures to the earth, representing his belief in knowledge through empirical observation and experience, while holding a copy of his Nicomachean Ethics in his hand.
Plato holds his Timaeus and gestures to the heavens, representing his belief in The Forms. In ancient Athens, a boy was socially located by his family identity, and Plato often refers to his characters in terms of their paternal and fraternal relationships. Socrates was not a family man, and saw himself as the son of his mother, who was apparently a midwife.
A divine fatalist, Socrates mocks men who spent exorbitant fees on tutors and trainers for their sons, and repeatedly ventures the idea that good character is a gift from the gods.
In the Theaetetus, he is found recruiting as a disciple a young man whose inheritance has been squandered. Socrates twice compares the relationship of the older man and his boy lover to the father-son relationship Lysis a, Republic 3.
Socrates is often found arguing that knowledge is not empirical, and that it comes from divine insight. In many middle period dialogues, such as the Phaedo, Republic and Phaedrus Plato advocates a belief in the immortality of the soul, and several dialogues end with long speeches imagining the afterlife.
More than one dialogue contrasts knowledge and opinion, perception and realitynature and custom, and body and soul. Several dialogues tackle questions about art: Socrates says that poetry is inspired by the musesand is not rational. In IonSocrates gives no hint of the disapproval of Homer that he expresses in the Republic.
Socrates and his company of disputants had something to say on many subjects, including politics and art, religion and science, justice and medicine, virtue and vice, crime and punishment, pleasure and pain, rhetoric and rhapsody, human nature and sexuality, as well as love and wisdom.
While most people take the objects of their senses to be real if anything is, Socrates is contemptuous of people who think that something has to be graspable in the hands to be real.
In other words, such people live without the divine inspiration that gives him, and people like him, access to higher insights about reality. Socrates says that he who sees with his eyes is blind, and this idea is most famously captured in his Allegory of the Caveand more explicitly in his description of the divided line.
The Allegory of the Cave begins Republic 7.Plato and the Old Oligarch were some of the major critics of democracy, both Plato and the Old Oligarch saw democracy as unstable and detrimental to society.
Plato goes on to provide his solution to democracy, Plato sought to replace democracy with a philosopher king. Plato's Republic presents a critical view of democracy through the narration of Socrates: "Democracy, which is a charming form of government, full of variety and disorder, and dispensing a sort of equality to equals and unequaled alike.".
Democracy is a topic extensively studied by political philosophers all around the world. Plato was one of these philosophers. Plato believed that “democracy [ ] is a charming form of government, full of verity and disorder; and dispensing a sort of equality to equals and unequals alike”.
Plato and Democracy The Ship of Fools Anja Steinbauer explains why Plato had problems with democracy.. A lovely boat lazily bobbing up and down on the water, going here and there and nowhere: A nice way of spending a summer Sunday afternoon.
The first, rather obvious, strike against Athenian democracy is that there was a tendency for people to be casually executed. It is understandable why Plato would despise democracy, considering that his friend and mentor, Socrates, was condemned to death by the policy makers of Athens in BCE.
In democracy most of the political offices are distributed by lot (a). The primary goal of the democratic regime is freedom or license (b-c).
People will come to hold offices without having the necessary knowledge (e) and everyone is treated as an equal in ability (equals and unequals alike, c). Plato: Political Philosophy;.