Three Types of Instructional Activities Constructivism — Learning and Teaching This page begins by emphasizing that active learning occurs "whenever experiences stimulate mental activities that lead to meaningful learning," and this cognitive activity does not require physical activity. Section 2B assumes a cognitive constructivist view of learning-and-teaching: What are the educational implications of constructivist learning theories?
Description of Analytical Methods and Results Manuscripts describing the development and evaluation of the performance of methods and instruments should discuss linearity, imprecision, repeatability, reproducibility, analytical specificity, recovery, lower limit of detection, limit of blank, comparability with other analytical methods, lower limit of quantification and reference interval s.
Some clinical data are usually needed. Document the analytical advantages of the new or modified method over existing methods. Bioanalytical Method Evaluation, 1. Calibration curves and linearity: Data for these studies should be analyzed by linear regression analysis if a linear response is obtained and should include the slope, intercept, r2, standard error, standard deviation of residuals, and the standard deviations of the slope and intercept.
Standard deviations of repeated points may be included. In preparing nonlinear calibration curves, authors may use any objective, statistically valid method but must specify the method used see, e.
Study should reflect the level of complexity found in field practice. This document or an equivalent scientific approach should be used for reporting imprecision.
One method for estimating both within-run and total standard deviations is the analysis of variance experiment described in NCCLS EP5-T 3which calls for two replicates per specimen per run and two runs per day for 20 days.
This permits separate estimation of between-day and between-run, within-day standard deviations, as well as within-run and total standard deviations. For acceptable alternatives that include only one run per day, see the cited document.
Indicators of Accuracy "Trueness": These are the only accepted approaches to trueness. When neither is available, other evidence relevant to the ability of the method to measure the analyte measurand is needed.
Recovery studies involve analyses after known amounts of analyte are added to the biological fluid on which the determination will be performed. Interference studies should be performed to assess the effects of common interferents, including lipid particles, hemoglobin, bilirubin, and components of uremic plasma.
Exogenous materials, such as ingredients of blood collection containers tubes and commonly used or commonly coadministered drugs that might interfere with the determination, should also be tested for interferences. Selection of materials to test should be guided by an understanding of the chemistry and physics of the measuring system.
Thus chemicals that are structurally similar to the analyte should be tested to assess the selectivity of the method. In characterizing non-spectrophotometric methods, chemicals that may interfere in the detection system should be studied more intensively than chemicals that are historically important for interference in spectrophotometric methods.
Comparison-of-methods studies should compare results by the new or proposed method with those by a reference-quality method or other generally accepted analytical method for which assay performance is documented 45. It is desirable to test to different samples from patients who have been selected to include a wide variety of pathologic conditions and to present a range of values for the analyte that includes those likely to be encountered in routine application.
For a table of the required number of samples, see Linnet 6. If regression analysis is used for statistical evaluation of the data, supply slopes and intercepts and their standard deviations and standard deviations of residuals Sy x, often called standard errors of estimates.
A program to perform Deming regression is available online as a supplement from this journal 8.
The correlation coefficient has limited utility and should not be used as a basis for determining the method performance.
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